Technology

Technology

Water Treatment Technologies:
Traditional Ways to purify water:

Boiling:- This is the most common way of getting the water filtered at homes. Boiling of water makes water microbiologically safe, it removes bacteria present in water. Even today, people are using these methods of purification.

Home filters (Filters in stainless steel container) : - This is another method of getting the water filtered at homes for the purpose of drinking and cooking. This method helps in removing the suspended impurities from the water.

Mixing alum in the water : - Alum acts as a coagulant in water, it breaks the impurities like turbidity etc. in the form of flocs & then, the water is filtered from a cloth or sieve to make it usable. It also makes the water microbiologically safe for drinking.

Mixing chlorine in the water : - This method helps in killing the bacteria & viruses present in water, making the water microbiologically safe for drinking. But it does not remove the other impurities present in the water.

Following is a basic description of several of the most common water treatment technologies available to produce drinking water.

Filters : Filters are water treatment systems in which suspended solids and micron particulate matters are removed through micron rating filters. The various configurations of filters are available in market and they have varying types of mechanical and chemical reduction capabilities. Most common available filters are cartridges filters of various micron rating, pressure sand filters, activated carbon filters, dual media filters, specialty filters, multi grade filters etc. The filters are most suitable for those areas where water have only suspended solids impurities. Filters can remove the suspended solids but it can not remove the biological impurities, dissolved salts and chemical impurities.

Ultra Filtration Systems : Ultra Filtration (UF) is water treatment system in which physical impurities and biological impurities are removed through UF membrane. UF systems work by using pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane of pore size 0.01 microns. The UF is suitable for those areas where physical and biological impurities are reported. UF can reduce the physical impurities and biological impurities but it can not remove the dissolved salts and pesticides from water.

Nano Filtration Systems : Nano Filtration (NF) is water treatment system in which physical impurities, biological impurities and hardness are removed through NF membrane. NF systems work by using pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane of pore size 0.001 microns. The NF is suitable for those areas where physical impurities, biological impurities and hardness are reported. NF can reduce the physical impurities, biological impurities and hardness but it can not remove the anion dissolved salts from water.

Reverse Osmosis Systems : Reverse osmosis (RO) is water treatment system in which almost all water impurities are removed through reverse osmosis membrane. Reverse osmosis systems work by using pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane of pore size 0.0001 microns, which is 620,000 times finer than a human hair, 10,000 smaller than a red blood cell, 2,500 times smaller than bacteria and 20 to 500 times smaller than any virus. The RO is suitable for almost all areas where water impurities are reported. RO can reduce the physical impurities, biological impurities, dissolved salts, pesticides, chemical impurities and heavy metals.

Ultraviolet Treatment Systems : Ultraviolet (UV) treatment system is water treatment system in which microorganisms are deactivated through ultraviolet light. As the efficiency of the UV system is affected by the clarity of the incoming water supply, it is important that turbid or dirty water first be treated by filtration. UV systems are most suitable for those areas where water have only biological impurities. UV systems can reduce the bacteria and viruses from water but it can not reduce the dissolved salts, heavy metals, pesticides and chemical impurities.

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